Naked jew woman concentration camp

Naked jew woman concentration camp. In the early part of the war, with many assuming that Feb 9, 2022 · When Jewish women used to deport to concentration camps. Feb 16, 2017 · On arrival at Auschwitz, the Czech Jews were sent straight to the Familienlager (family camp) BIIb—a ‘showpiece’ built at Birkenau in September 1943 for the purpose of a visit by the International Committee of the Red Cross to refute accusations of the mass murder of the Jews. Judy Weiszenberg Cohen, an Auschwitz survivor living in Canada, told the editors that the “fear of rape” was omnipresent in the concentration camp. The guards crushed the revolt and killed almost all of the prisoners involved in the rebellion. The camp complex Auschwitz consisting of three major camps – Stammlager (I), Birkenau (II) and Monowitz (III) – was founded as concentration camp, but served from 1943 also as principal place of the extermination of Hungarian Jews, Jews from Theresienstadt and Gypsies. Sommer traces the origins of the myth of Jewish women forced into prostitution in camp brothels back to the myth of institutionalized, sys-tematic rape in the concentration camps (“Mythos und Wahrheit” ). More than 34,000 girls and women were trafficked and raped at these sites, mostly by German soldiers and Nazi police. Three naked women before they were shot at Janowska concentration camp, Poland. Prisoner at Dachau in a compression chamber dies during a high-altitude, no-oxygen experiment. Without memory, there would be no civilization, no society, no future. It was the last camp to be liberated. 1 million people — 90% of them Jews — had been murdered within its walls. Apr 28, 2019 · Edgewater woman, 97, recalls torture, abuse in Nazi concentration camps. A few hours later, another transport arrived. rape, they would likely face five possible outcomes: miscarriage, abortion, childbirth, euthanasia. Arrival. Album. To learn more about Nazi attitudes toward sexual relations between women, see Laurie Marhoefer, “Lesbianism, Transvestitism, and the Nazi State: A Microhistory of a Gestapo Investigation, 1939-1943,” The American Historical Review 121:4 (2016): 1167-1195; and Javier Samper Vendrell, “The Case of a German-Jewish Lesbian Woman: Martha Mosse and the Danger of Standing Out,” German Studies May 27, 2020 · In most ghettos it was forbidden for women to give birth on pain of death, says Beverley Chalmers, author of Birth, Sex and Abuse: Women’s Voices Under Nazi Rule. Jews of Lubny Await Execution. Apr 18, 2023 · The murderers dragged Jewish women out of their apartments and cut off their breasts in the middle of the street. Barack Obama's 2009 Visit to the Site. Victim of a medical experiment immersed in freezing water at the Dachau concentration camp. SS men escorted the men, women, and children selected for death to the gas chambers—initially to the gas chamber in crematorium I and “bunkers” 1 and 2, and, from the spring of 1943, to the gas chambers in crematoria II, III, IV, and V. Jun 9, 2021 · The victorious Soviets exalted horrific revenge upon the helpless civilian population of Nazi Germany. The vast majority of victims/survivors were women, and perpetrators were mostly men — Germans and their allies, e. The images were taken within 15–30 minutes of each other by During the uprising in October 1944, the prisoners killed three guards. In 1942, the Nazis decided that forced laborers in concentration camps would work harder if they were promised sex — so they made female prisoners Auschwitz I, the main camp in the Auschwitz camp complex, is the first camp established near Oswiecim. Aug 17, 2009 · In 1942, the Nazis decided that forced laborers in concentration camps would work harder if they were promised sex -- so they made female prisoners work in brothels for them. They faced cruel choices connected to annihilation Mar 26, 2002 · On March 26, 1942, close to 1000 Jewish women were taken from the Ravensbrück concentration camp to Auschwitz. The collection of prison photographs consists of 38,916 photos, including 31,969 photos of men and 6,947 photos of women. In ghettos, concentration camps, and labor camps created by the Germans and their allies and collaborators, Jews were murdered through deliberate privation, disease, brutal treatment, and arbitrary acts of violence. [1] In 1942, the first female guards arrived at Auschwitz and Majdanek from Ravensbrück. At first Janowska had no female inmates but after the massive 'actions' of 1942 a female barracks was established. Jun 6, 2011 · Jewish women were raped and sexually abused by Nazi guards, but also by liberators, people who hid them, aid givers, partisans and even fellow prisoners. Aufseherinnen) was the position title for a female guard in Nazi concentration camps. The Jewish barber is sent to a concentration camp, but manages to escape (and ends up mistaken for Hynkel, while Hynkel is mistaken for the Jewish barber, and sent off to a concentration camp). Execution at Ivangorod. Saidel. Also, in 1942, the SS opened up brothels in various camps. Nearly 2,700,000 Jews are killed in the gas chambers in the killing centers as part of the "Final Solution. From then on her career took her through some of the most notorious of Germany’s camps among them Ravensbruck, Auschwitz and Bergan-Belsen where she was stationed at the close of the war. Emil and Josefa were sent on to Maly Trostinets Dec 1, 2017 · The video was filmed in 1999 and exhibited in Poland in 2015. German Girl Overcome By Sight Of Victims. After Kegal, SS-Hauptsturmführer Fritz Suhren served as camp commander until its liberation in 1945. The camp, opened in May 1939, was the site of murder by slave labor, torture, starvation, shooting, lethal injection, "medical" experimentation, and The camp was opened in 1939 and was designated for the internment female political prisoners. " Life in the Jewish ghettos of the Holocaust was indeed torture. Along with a few photographs in the Auschwitz Album, they are the only ones known to exist of events around the gas chambers. Although Auschwitz I is primarily a concentration camp Concentration Camp Survivors Share Their Stories The Holocaust was the systematic murder of Europe’s Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators during the Second World War. Five participants in an unsuccessful escape attempt two months earlier (three Austrians and two Poles) were hanged in the main camp on December 30, 1944, and four Jewish women were hanged on January 6 for supplying Sonderkommando prisoners with explosives that they used during Jul 18, 2022 · It is an extraordinary, wholly unfamiliar, unprecedented film centering on largely unknown and clandestinely shot photographs taken by a handful of prisoners in five Nazi concentration camps Jun 24, 2011 · At one point during the evening, a Rwandan woman stood and shared publicly, for the first time, the story of her rape at 14. It is estimated that the number of victims reached a few thousand. The photos were taken in three body positions: profile, en face and en face in a cap (men) or en face in a shawl (women). 1 million people at Auschwitz. Pre-war roles and responsibilities, anticipatory reactions to Nazi actions, German policy and treatment of men and women, and the responses of Jewish men and women to Nazi persecution effected women’s ordeals. The entrance of Auschwitz concentration camp after its liberation in Jan Aufseherin ( [ˈaʊ̯fˌzeːəʁɪn], pl. Jan 27, 2019 · From 1940 to 1945, the Auschwitz-Birkenau complex was the largest of the Nazi death camps, was comprised of three central hubs and dozens of subcamps. 1 million died. Aug 17, 2009 · Aug. The camp is continuously expanded through the use of forced labor. Given that everyone who witnessed the incident, on October 23, 1943, is no longer alive, we will probably never know what really happened. “The exact number of women who would often inflicted sex-based violence on Jewish women with impunity. Some of them wear civilian clothes. In one scene, Herring (a parody of Hermann Göring ) makes a passing mention that they have discovered a new poison gas, that will kill everybody. One night in the autumn of 1944, two Frenchwomen—Loulou Le Porz, a doctor, and Violette Lecoq, a nurse—watched as a truck drove in through the main gates of Jul 12, 2021 · The SS murdered at least 56,000 male prisoners in the Buchenwald camp system. At least 100 women prisoners from Ravensbrück worked in the brothels. One person on the panel was Jessica Neuwirth, a women's rights lawyer May 18, 2020 · Sexual violence during the Holocaust in Ukraine, like everywhere in Nazi-dominated Europe, was gendered first of all in terms of sexes of the perpetrators and the victims. Sophie is the survivor of Nazi concentration camps, who has found a reason to live with Nathan, a sparkling if unsteady American Jew obsessed with the Holocaust. February or March 1945) [1] was a German -born Jewish girl who kept a diary in which she documented life in hiding under Nazi persecution during the German occupation of the Jan 23, 2020 · In just over four-and-a-half years, Nazi Germany systematically murdered at least 1. Noted for her brutality, Bormann was well known for having These two events, and the resulting arrests and deportations, meant that Jews became the largest prisoner group for the first time since the introduction of the Nazi concentration camps in Germany in 1933. " — Auschwitz survivor and author Elie Wiesel. In addition to thousands of political prisoners, criminals, Jehovah’s witnesses, and those deemed “asocial,” about 20 percent of the camp’s prisoners were Jewish. June 6, 2009, marked the 65th anniversary of D-Day. Ravensbrück ( pronounced [ʁaːvənsˈbʁʏk]) was a Nazi concentration camp exclusively for women from 1939 to 1945, located in northern Germany, 90 km (56 mi) north of Berlin at a site near the village of Ravensbrück (part of Fürstenberg/Havel ). The Jewish women, including Gertner, who had smuggled the explosives into the camp were publicly hanged in early Mar 3, 2023 · Auschwitz-Birkenau, the largest of the killing centers, has four large gas chambers using Zyklon B (crystalline hydrogen cyanide) as the killing agent. In 1933, a Jewish lawyer named Michael Siegel went to the Munich police to file a report on behalf of his Jewish client, Max Uhlfelder. Before he was imprisoned, Joseph had used his skill as an artist to create fake documents that saved hundreds of lives. The Soviet army raped over two million German women. It would end for some of them on that forced Oct 30, 2012 · In 1939, Bormann joined the Auxiliary SS to, as she put it at her trial, “earn more money. 6 Waging a war of annihilation against the Soviet Union, German military and security forces systematically neglected, abused, and murdered Soviet POWs. of the child, or death of both mother and child. ”. If a woman became pregnant in a ghetto or transition camp, either by consensual sex or. View photos connected to the experiences of women during the Holocaust, as well as the important role women played in resistance activities. Director Alan J. Some 11,000 of them were Jews. "Jewish women did centration camps and of forced prostitution in SS and Wehrmacht brothels rare or in the latter case, nearly nonexistent. 1982 2h 30m R. Among the horrors of Nazi concentration camps like Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Dachau, and Mauthausen-Gusen, the story of Ravensbrück often gets overlooked. Many later worked in death camps such as Auschwitz-Birkenau or Bergen-Belsen. 2004. The condemned prisoners were led to the wall in pairs. Whoever didn’t make it through this process was killed. Aug 27, 2019 · Aug 27, 2019. 3 After the initial September transport was gassed, other transports arrived from Theresienstadt in May 1944. Most of the women got their heads shaved. The Nazis were truly sadistic when it came to psychological torture and they were even able to turn music into a weapon of misery. The Nazis established more than 500 brothels across occupied Europe, including in concentration and extermination camps. In the most notorious of all, Auschwitz-Birkeanau, she was Mar 30, 2015 · Photograph from Akg-Images. Women were at first held in blocks 1–10 of Auschwitz I, but from 6 August 1942, 13,000 inmates were transferred to a new women's camp (Frauenkonzentrationslager or FKL) in Auschwitz II. Description. The prisoners in the photographs wear striped uniforms. The Sonderkommando photographs are four blurred photographs taken secretly in August 1944 inside the Auschwitz concentration camp in German-occupied Poland. In the featured photograph, a group of Soviet prisoners of war (POWs) is forced to perform exercises in an internment camp in occupied Poland. 5 (53K) Rate. "Without memory, there is no culture. ) A third transport of 798 Jewish women from Bratislava, Slovakia, followed on 28 March. Last Moments before the Gas Chambers. The last hangings came shortly before the liquidation of Auschwitz. In the Nazi death and concentration camps, women were forced to parade naked in front of SS personnel and guards who Non-Jewish women were vulnerable as well. Jews Executed in Nazi-Occupied Ukraine. Created to incarcerate women and serve as a “model” concentration camp, Ravensbrück imprisoned about 132,000 women and children between 1939 and 1945, committing them to slave labor and miserable conditions. Inmates Oct 10, 2020 · In August 1942, Joe was deported to the ghetto-concentration camp Theresienstadt. Dec 1, 2017 · Artur Żmijewski. 17, 2009, 12:29 PM PDT / Source: Reuters. Western part of the unloading ramp is visible, as well as crematories II and III and part of the camp. On February 13, 1944, the couple married in the women’s barracks of the Office IV was the Gestapo. Sophie's Choice. Many survived, with a quarter of documented victims being Indeed it was the execrable Eicke who went back and transformed Dachau right after the conquest of Poland had been completed. Pakula Stars Meryl Streep Kevin Kline Peter MacNicol. Judy Weiszenberg Cohen, an Auschwitz survivor living in Canada, told the editors that the "fear of rape" was omnipresent in the concentration camp. Trucks carried those too infirm to walk, and the rest marched. 3 million Soviet soldiers died in German Apr 16, 2015 · Nestled alongside an idyllic lake, the Ravensbrück concentration camp, 50 miles north of Berlin, was constructed in 1939 specifically to house women. Our mother was born in a family of eight children in the village of Karliw (present-day Prutivka), Sniatynsky Raion, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast on December 26, 1919. Hartheim Castle. Auschwitz-Birkenau, as well as Bergen-Belsen, were multi-functional camp Nov 30, 2017 · An art installation showing naked men and women playing a game of tag in one of the gas chambers in a former Nazi concentration camp has caused outrage among Holocaust survivors' groups. Using testimonies, Nazi documents, memoirs, and artistic representations, this volume broadens and deepens comprehension of Jewish women’s experiences of rape and other forms of sexual violence during the Holocaust. After the closure of the Lichtenburg camp in 1939, Ravensbrück was also the Feb 10, 2021 · Former farmworker Irma Grese had wanted to become a nurse but, at 17, the labour exchange sent her to work at Ravensbrück concentration camp - which held 132,000 women throughout the war. " June 22, 1944. The moment an inmate arrived at the camp an orchestra (usually comprised of prisoners) would play obscenely upbeat music which inmates had to sing and march to as they walked towards their death. Again, it was made up of almost 1000 Dec 17, 2019 · Jewish prisoners who gathered in field number 5 understood that the aim of this operation was to eliminate all Jews from Majdanek concentration camp and other places. Beginning in 1933, the Nazi regime harassed and dismantled Germany’s gay communities. They depicted the camp as having events where prisoners would be forced to run around the camp naked, in order to see who was too weak to continue. An aerial photo taken by the South Africam pilots from a recconassaince unit of SAAF on August 25, 1944. g. By the end of the war, 130,000 women from 20 Edited by Sonja M. Feb 7, 2010 · During the Holocaust, many women’s experiences were shaped by their gender. Unloading ramp and crematories in Birkenau. The camp memorial's estimated figure of 132,000 Sep 12, 2016 · Jewish women were raped and sexually abused by Nazi guards, but also by liberators, people who hid them, aid givers, partisans and even fellow prisoners. Mar 27, 2020 · Of 1. Holocaust survivor groups have asked the Polish president to explain how artists were able to film a naked game Jan 27, 2019 · These Pictures Show The Barbaric Inhumanity Of Auschwitz Concentration Camp. Courtesy of AASECT. The least-known of the four pictures is the first one, which shows only the black shapes and shadows of trees. Jewish Women Executed in Mizocs. 2. During the Holocaust, 130,000 female prisoners pass through the gates of Ravensbrück — most of whom never walked back out. The Nazis committed mass murder of Roma women at Auschwitz concentration camp, murdered females with disabilities in the T-4 and other euthanasia operations, and slaughtered women along with men as so-called partisans in many Soviet villages in 1943-1944. At least 250,000 Jews were May 28, 2021 · 1. Rescued women from Ravensbrück. Over 240,000 women died because of rapes Feb 16, 2021 · By tracing the identities of the figures in a photograph documenting the murder of Jews in Ukraine, Wendy Lower hopes to reveal the networks of complicity that made the Holocaust possible Sep 26, 2023 · Between 800,000 and 1,000,000 Jews were murdered in ghettos, labor camps, and concentration camps. First gassing at Ravensbrück concentration camp. Known as "rabbits," nearly 80 women prisoners were selected as subjects for these experiments. Almost one million were Jews. SARAH’S KEY (2010) Sarah’s Key is one of the few entirely fictional films on the Holocaust, featuring a past and present layer of narrative. Jewish Women Executed in Latvia. The myth of Liberated by. Soviet Union, 30 April 1945. Any women among them disrobed in separate rooms. During the late 1980s, I conducted a study of Jewish men and women who had If 2 million Jewish women were murdered during the Holocaust, sexual molestation was the lot of a few, but violence was the lot of the many. However, Jewish women were subjected to additional degradation and oppression, including sexual violence and rape. Assignment to Slave Labor. "Kanada". After their invasion of Poland in 1939, the Jan 18, 2021 · Some 3,500 women worked as Nazi concentration camp guards, and all of them started out at Ravensbrück. Getty Images Mar 29, 2018 · About 150,000 non-Jewish Poles were sent to Auschwitz alone, with another 65,000 dying in the Stutthof concentration camp set up specifically for Poles. Selection. Oct 30, 2022 · Ravensbrück concentration camp dedicated to women was located in Northern Germany and comprised of 132,000 females in total. One scene shows Jewish women putting their blood on their cheeks in order to show guards that they were still healthy and able to work. Apr 29, 2020 · Ukrainian women in Nazi prisons & concentration camps. Jul 4, 2013 · 6 The Music. Those deported to the camp complex were gassed Nicky's Family (2011) Trailer. ” After Nazis captured and delivered their prisoners to concentration camps, certain acts of sexual violation began immediately as part of processing them at the In the summer of 1942, camp doctors began their unethical medical experiment program. Ullstein Bild Dtl. Almost all had been imprisoned as "anti-social". Most people are only aware of the last three photographs: one showing the naked women running, and two showing the Sonderkommando burning bodies. Watch on. Poles who did resist such mass deportations and killings, like those in the resistance who led the Warsaw Uprising of 1944, were arrested and killed en masse with the Nazis showing no mercy. This was true despite the fact that sexual relations between men were criminalized in Germany. In the concentration camp system, it was second in size only to the women's camp in Auschwitz-Birkenau (which was in German-annexed Poland). First in a series of five memoirs written by our mother, Olha Froliak-Eliashevska, Nazi death camp survivor. Mengele was evil personified. Advertisement. One person on the panel was Jessica Neuwirth, a women's rights lawyer This danger is more vivid when they are seen together. The video is named Game of Tag The perpetrators of the Holocaust treated Jewish women and children every bit as brutally as Jewish men. Jews were also frequent targets for this type of individual humiliation. Oct 10, 2020 · In August 1942, Joe was deported to the ghetto-concentration camp Theresienstadt. Mann, who was 26 at the time, arrived at Auschwitz that day Nazi human experimentation was a series of medical experiments on prisoners by Nazi Germany in its concentration camps mainly between 1942 and 1945. Selected for Slave Labor. 68 Metascore. Early in 1945 — the year the war came to an end — the final one 3. 3 million men and women sent to the Nazi death camp Auschwitz, 1. 7. Jews Gazing Through Barbed Wire. Then President Barack Obama visited Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany on June 5, 2009. API/Gamma-Rapho via Getty Images. The first contingent of inmates was transported from Lichtenburg camp with SS-Hauptsturmführer Max Kegal, who served as camp commander until 1942. Aug 25, 2012 · Mengele was the camp physician at Auschwitz. Saidel University of Wisconsin Press. By the time it was liberated in 1945, some 1. Of the 50,000 guards who served in the concentration camps, training records indicate that approximately 3,500 were women. About 65,000 people were killed at Stutthof concentration camp. The women were then led into the courtyard and shot first. In early October 1939, Heinrich Himmler, leader of the SS, secured Adolf Hitler’s approval for the creation of three new SS divisions that would be utilized for the coming offensive against France and the Low Countries. Jun 18, 2019 · Their heads were shaved, and then, as punishment, Bronia was sent to a concentration camp and Gerhard to the eastern front of the war. Whilst many Jewish people were subsequently released (in line with the Nazis’ policy of forced emigration as opposed to murder at this The condemned prisoners had to strip naked in block 11, on the ground floor. But what he didn’t know was Miriam was pregnant and, miraculously, would be one of seven Jewish women to give birth to Jan 26, 2015 · Turgel, an elegant woman with more than a hint of mischief in her blue eyes, survived not one or two, but three Nazi concentration camps. There are a few versions of what occurred during the final moments in the life of Franceska Mann, a Jewish dancer living in Poland. But some officers used to relax this order for the girls who were beautiful. May 21, 2019 · By PJ Grisar May 21, 2019. They reacted very differently. Construction began in May 1940 in the Zasole suburb of Oswiecim, in artillery barracks formerly used by the Polish army. Although female hair was removed at camps with gas chambers, Janowska and some smaller concentration camps skipped this procedure. Jan 14, 2020 · It began when she and more than 900 other young Slovak women, many of them teenagers, boarded the first official Jewish transport to Auschwitz in 1942. The conventional understanding has long been that women stopped menstruating while at concentration camps due to trauma or malnutrition. Through a small square in the side of a boxcar cramped with human cargo, 22-year-old Elsie Ragusin watched the cities of Aug 9, 2007 · From 1942 onwards, 200-300 gentile prisoners from the camp were forced to work in 10 camp brothels across Germany, Austria and Poland. Roughly 3. The Nazis also enslaved and killed other groups who they perceived as racially, biologically or ideologically inferior or dangerous. Jan 26, 2015 · Updated November 7, 2023. Franci and her parents Emil and Josefa followed a month later.  279 pagesRavensbrück, the only major Nazi concentration camp for women, was located about fifty miles north of Berlin. Tens of thousands of them were murdered or died of hunger, illnesses . Jun 24, 2011 · At one point during the evening, a Rwandan woman stood and shared publicly, for the first time, the story of her rape at 14. / Getty Images. The past goes back to 1942, the year when the deportation of the French Jews began in Paris with the infamous Vel d’Hiv Roundup. There were 15,754 documented victims, of various nationalities and age groups, although the true number is believed to be more extensive. A Roma Gypsy (Roma) (Roma) victim of experiment to make seawater potable at Dachau. Jan 25, 2016 · From 1939 to 1945, approximately 130,000 women from 40 different nations were held in the concentration camp of Ravensbrück. Feb 7, 2018 · Disturbing Photos Captured Inside The Jewish Ghettos Of The Holocaust. In a speech at the site, he repudiated Holocaust denial. The Ravensbrück concentration camp was the largest concentration camp for women within Germany's prewar borders. Sep 12, 2022 · Peggy Kleinplatz. In January of 1943, four Polish political prisoners in Ravensbrück, a women-only Nazi concentration camp in northern Germany, wrote letters to their families. They also set fire to Crematorium 4, making it inoperable. Hadamar Photographs. But what he didn’t know was Miriam was pregnant and, miraculously, would be one of seven Jewish women to give birth to Jul 12, 2021 · The SS murdered at least 56,000 male prisoners in the Buchenwald camp system. The book goes beyond previous studies, and challenges claims that Jewish Jan 27, 2021 · According to Yad Vashem, the World Holocaust Remembrance Center, 58,000 Slovakian Jews were sent to the extermination camps during 1942, and approximately 100,000 Slovakian Jews died during the May 16, 2014 · Love was forbidden among the Jews in Nazi concentration camps. "There is no justice in the world," one young girl wrote in her diary, struggling through starvation and imprisonment under Nazi rule, "not to mention in the ghetto. The SS executioner walked up from behind and shot them in the back of the head with a small-caliber rifle. These people had to disrobe before Nazi physician Carl Clauberg performs experiments at Block 10, Auschwitz. , Hungarian, Romanian, Italian and local collaborators Apr 26, 2023 · Main Camp. Jewish groups want senior Polish officials to condemn the video. The video Annelies Marie " Anne " Frank ( German: [ˈanə (liːs maˈʁiː) ˈfʁaŋk] ⓘ, Dutch: [ˌɑnəˈlis maːˈri ˈfrɑŋk, ˈɑnə ˈfrɑŋk] ⓘ; 12 June 1929 – c. However, Joseph Bau and Rebecca Tennenbaum were not people who gave in to the Nazis. In the camps, the danger was Apr 13, 2018 · In 2010, Saidel, together with Sonja Hedgepeth, published “Sexual Violence against Jewish Women during the Holocaust. Feb 5, 2015 · During its existence from October 1941 to July 1944, Majdanek had a number of different functions: a camp for Soviet prisoners of war; a forced labour camp for male Jews in the region; a concentration camp for male Poles from the resistance; an extermination camp for Jewish deportees, male and female (June 1942–November 1943); a concentration The Jewish Women of Ravensbrück Concentration CampRochelle G. Hedgepeth and Rochelle G. ” “Almost every single one of the women [in the Holocaust] was sexually The condemned prisoners had to strip naked in block 11, on the ground floor. Before the Nazis came to power in 1933, gay communities and networks flourished in Germany, especially in big cities. ac ys jo cr nt wx cu uj zv mr